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Numerical control technology reachs the technical feature that its equip

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The advance rapidly of technology of numerical control system offerred a condition for the technical progress of numerical control machine tool. To satisfy the need of the market, achieve the demand with modern production higher to what numerical control technology puts forward technology, current, technology of world numerical control and the development that its equip basically reflect for feature of technology of the following respects: 1, high speed, efficient machine tool changes directional development to high speed, not only can improve treatment substantially efficiency, reduce finished cost, and the exterior treatment quality that still can improve a spare parts and precision. Exceed high speed processing technique to realize production of efficient, high grade, low cost to have extensive applicability to manufacturing industry. 20 centuries since 90 time, each country of Europe, beautiful, day contends for photograph development to use machine tool of numerical control of new generation high speed, accelerate machine tool high speed to change development pace. High speed main shaft is unit (electric main shaft, rotate speed 15000 - 100000r/min) , high speed and add high / the feed motion part that reduces rate (move quickly speed 60~120m/min, cutting feed speed was as high as 60m/min) , high-powered numerical control and servo and system of numerical control tool to appear to be broken through newly, reached new technical level. As freeboard fast cutting mechanism, exceed hard wear-resisting to grow material of life cutting tool and abrasive to grind, add main shaft of report of high-power high speed, high / decelerate spends component of feed of drive of linear electric machinery and high-powered control system (embody supervisory system) of technology of the key in waiting for a series of technology domains with guard solve, for development application machine tool of numerical control of new generation high speed provided technical basis. Current, in exceeding high speed to machine, the cutting speed of turning and milling already achieved 5000~8000m/min above; Main shaft revolution is in 30000 turn / cent (some is as high as above of 100 thousand R/min) ; The floating rate of workbench (feed speed) : When resolution is 1 micron, arrive in 100m/min(some 200m/min) above, it is in resolution 0.

When 1 micron, in 24m/min above; Change knife speed automatically to be in 1 second less than; Speed of feed of interpolation of small line segment achieves 12m/min. 2, high accuracy develops superprecision from accurate treatment, it is the direction that power of world each industry is dedicated to developing. Its precision arrives from micron class inferior micron class, and even accept rice class (<10nm) , its application range is wide with each passing day. Current, below the requirement of machining high accuracy, the treatment precision of machine tool of average level numerical control already by ± 10 μ M raises ± 5 μ M; Exact form the treatment precision of machining center criterion from M of ± 3~5 μ , raise ± 1~1.

5 μ M, taller even; Superprecision precision enters accept rice stage (0.

001 micron) , precision of main shaft circumgyrate asks to achieve 0.


05 micron, treatment circularity is 0.

1 micron, machine Ra=0 of exterior surface roughness.

003 micron. These machine tools use main shaft of report of drive of vector pilot frequency conversion commonly (electric machinery and) of main shaft unifinication, main shaft radial is jumpy be less than 2µm, axial change is moved be less than 1µm, the shafting is lopsided degree achieve G0.

4 class. The feed drive of machine tool of high speed expensive precision work, basically have " circumgyrate servo electric machinery adds guide screw of ball of accurate high speed " and " linear electric machinery is direct drive " two sort. In addition, burgeoning shunt-wound machine tool also realizes high speed feed easily. Ball guide screw matures as a result of craft, application is wide, not only precision can be achieved taller (ISO34081 class) , and the cost that implementation high speed influences is relatively inferior also, so heretofore still machines machine tool place to use for a lot of high speed. The machine tool of high speed treatment of drive of guide screw of current use ball is the biggest floating rate 90m/min, acceleration 1.

5g. Ball guide screw belongs to mechanical drive, flexibility of inevitable in transmission process existence is out of shape, attrition and backlash, corresponding ground causes athletic lag and other nonlinear error, machine the influence of precision to eliminate these errors to be opposite, began to use linear electric machinery on the machine tool 1993 direct drive, because be,do not have the link intermediate " 0 drive " , move not only inertia stiffness of small, system is big, answer fast, can achieve very high rate and acceleration, and its journey length is theoretic unlimited, fixed position precision reachs higher level easily also below the action of system of feedback of high accuracy position, it is machine tool of high speed expensive precision work especially the drive way with better bed of medium, large scale computer. The machine tool of high speed expensive precision work that uses linear electric machinery at present is the biggest move quickly speed already amounted to 208m/min, acceleration 2g, and still have development room. 3, the development that high reliability uses as network of numerical control machine tool, the high reliability of numerical control machine tool has become the target of manufacturer of numerical control system and pursuit of manufacturer of numerical control machine tool. the unmanned plant that makes two to every Nature's engineering, if ask to work normally continuously inside 16 hours, be in without fault rate P(t) = 99% above, criterion the MTBF of time of average failure free operation of numerical control machine tool must be more than 3000 hours. We are only right machine tool of a numerical control, of the failure rate that is like lead plane and numerical control system than be 10:1(Of numerical control compare mainframe reliably tall quantitative class) . Right now the MTBF of numerical control system is about to be more than 33333.

3 hours, and the MTBF that wait must be more than among them numerical control device, main shaft and drive 100 thousand hours. The MTBF value of device of current abroad numerical control already amounted to 6000 hours of above, actuating device amounts to 30000 hours of above, but, can see the target that is apart from ideal still has difference. 4, compound change there is many idle time to use up in process of spare parts treatment carry in workpiece, fluctuation makings, installation is adjusted, change knife and main shaft litre, fall fast on, to reduce these idle time as far as possible, people hopes will different treatment function conformity is on same table machine tool, accordingly, the machine tool of compound function becomes the machine with very rapid in recent years development to plant. Flexible the machine tool of production category is compound treatment concept is after showing workpiece outfit is placed, machine tool can according to CNC Machining program, undertake automatically same the multitask foreword treatment of kind of technique or not congener technique, in order to complete part of a complex form main and even whole vehicle, mill, auger, boring, grind, a variety of treatment such as reaming of Kong He of tap, bore with a reamer working procedure. With respect to arris body kind the spare parts, machining center is the most typical undertake same kind of technique multitask foreword is compound the machine tool of treatment. The fact proves, compound treatment can raise the machine tool treatment precision and treatment efficiency, economic cover an area of an area to be able to shorten especially the treatment of the spare parts is periodic. 5, much axis is changed as system of numerical control of 5 axes linkage and process designing software gain ground, machining center of pilot of 5 axes linkage and CNC Milling had become heat of current a development, because be when treatment freedom curved surface, the numerical control process designing that 5 axes linkage controls pair of ball head milling cutter is simpler, and can make ball head milling cutter is in what milling keeps reasonable from beginning to end in the process of 3 dimension curved surface cut fast, the surface roughness that showing improvement to machine the surface thereby and improve treatment efficiency substantially, and cannot avoid to cut in machine tool of pilot of 3 axes linkage fast the ball head milling cutter that is close to Yu Ling carries ministry participation cutting, accordingly, machine tool of 5 axes linkage has made the central point that manufacturer of each big machine tool is developed actively and competes with its irreplaceable performance dominant position. Recently, abroad still is studying 6 axes linkage controls use blame to rotate the machining center of cutting tool, although its treatment appearance is unlimited and cut deep can very thin, but treatment efficiency is too low one vogue is difficult practical change. 6, a general orientation that intelligence changes intelligence is development of 21 centuries production technology. Intelligent treatment is one kind is based on technology of network of nerve network control, ambiguous control, digitlization and academic treatment, it is the intelligent activity of expert of mankind of the imitate in wanting to machining a process, in order to solve treatment process of a lot of uncertainty, the problem that should solve by artificial interpose ability. The content that intelligence changes includes each fields in numerical control system: Machine efficiency and the intelligence that machine quality to change for pursuit, be like from adaptive control, craft parameter is generated automatically; Change to improve drive function and the intelligence with use convenient join, of parameter of control of the make a present of before be like, electric machinery suit to discern model of laden and automatic make choice of operation, automatically oneself, rectify oneself wait surely; Simplify process designing, simplify the intelligence of the operation is changed, be like the automatic process designing that intelligence changes, the man-machine interface that intelligence changes; Intelligence is diagnosed, intelligent monitoring, the diagnosis of convenient system and maintenance. The intelligence that having study on the world changes cutting to process a system a lot of, among them Japanese intelligence changes seminar of numerical control device to be aimed at get cut intelligence to machine plan to have representative. 7, the network of machine tool of network numerical control, the numerical control system that basically shows the machine tool deserves to install through place and external other controls a system or go up a computer undertake network join and network are controlled. Numerical control machine tool faces the local area network that produces the spot and enterprise interior above all commonly, next again by Internet leads to an enterprise exterior, this is alleged Internet/Intranet technology. As the maturity of network technology and development, industry offerred the concept that the number creates again recently. The number is made, say again " E- is made " , it is one of marks that machinery makes enterprise modernization, also be international the means offerring money that current level configures manufacturer of advanced machine tool. Use of the technology in great quantities as informatization, more and more home users ask to have the function such as long-range communication service when number of feed inlet charges a machine tool. Rigid production business is on the base that uses CAD/CAM generally, add more use CNC Machining device widely. Numerical control application software is abounded with each passing day and have " human nature is changed " . Fictitious design, fictitious make wait for high-end technology to be pursuit of place of project technology personnel increasingly also. Replace complex hardware through software intelligence, making the fundamental trend that contemporary machine tool develops. Below the target that makes in the number, transform through flow give somebody a new lease on life and informatization, the software of a batch of advanced business management such as ERP has shown itself, for the enterprise innovation goes taller economic benefits. 8, flexible the tide that turns development of system of automation of sex of Xiang Rou of numerical control machine tool is: From the dot (numerical control stand-alone, machining center and numerical control are compound treatment machine tool) , line (FMC, FMS, FTL, FML) to the face (production island of independence of workshop section workshop, FA) , body (CIMS, distributed network is compositive production system) way develops, on the other hand to pay attention to applied sex and economy direction development. Flexible automation technology is the main measure that manufacturing industry gets used to dynamic market demand and product to be updated quickly, it is the mainstream tendency that each country manufacturing industry develops, it is advanced the fundamental technology of production domain. Its are premise of the dependability with improving a system, practical melt into mainly, with easily couplet net and collect become a target; Pay attention to those who strengthen unit technology to develop, perfect; CNC stand-alone develops to high accuracy, high rate and direction of Gao Rou sex; Numerical control machine tool reachs his to form flexible production system can bind with CAD, CAM, CAPP, MTS conveniently, to information compositive way develops; Network system to open, compositive change directional development with intelligence. 9, the gold that green dissolves 21 centuries cuts a machine tool to must mix environmental protection energy-saving put in significant position, the green that should realize cutting to machine craft namely is changed. At present main concentration is in craft of treatment of this one green not to use cutting fluid to go up, because cutting fluid pollutes environment and harm worker health already,this basically is, increase resource and the sources of energy again use up. Dry cutting is commonly undertake in atmosphere atmosphere, but also include to be in special gas atmosphere (nitrogen medium, air cooling medium or use technology of refrigeration of Gan Shijing report) the cutting that does not use cutting fluid to undertake. Nevertheless, to certain treatment means and workpiece combination, the dry cutting that does not use cutting liquid completely is current still difficult with actual application, reason appeared to use infinitesimal to lubricate again (the accurate dry cutting of MQL) . In the big batch machining that is in Europe at present, the treatment that already had 10~15% was used work and do cutting definitely. To facing a variety of treatment methods / for the machine tool of the machining center and so on that workpiece combines, basically be to use accurate dry cutting, it is the cutting that lets infinitesimal normally oil and compress the hollow passageway gush inside main shaft of machine tool of airy mixture by and tool to cutting area. The machine tool is cut in of all kinds gold in, use dry cutting most is gear-hobbing machine. Anyhow, the progress of technology of numerical control machine tool and development offerred good condition for the development of modern manufacturing industry, make manufacturing industry side with efficient, high grade and the way that human nature changes develops. Can foreknow, the wide application of the development as technology of numerical control machine tool and numerical control machine tool, manufacturing industry will greet the profound revolution of mode of manufacturing industry of enough shake convention. CNC Milling